A glove box is a sealed container that is designed to allow one to manipulate objects where a separate atmosphere is desired.This glove box is sensitive to oxygen and water in an environment of nitrogen. The nitrogen of the box is constantly purified to eliminate traces produced during the processes. It works in over pressure, which is set between 10-30 mm Hg and it is automatically regulated by the equipment.
Dehumidifier is a home built configurable climatic chambers for development of Perovskite Photovoltaic cells which can control moisture ,humidity,temperature .
A solar simulator is a device that provides illumination approximating natural sunlight. The purpose of the solar simulator is to provide a controllable indoor test facility under laboratory conditions, used for the testing of solar cells,sun screen and other materials and devices. Sciencetech solar simulators are used for photovoltaic testing including I-V characterization Spectral Response, External and Internal Quantum Efficiency Photo conductivity measurement.
Thermal Deposition Chamber
Thermal Deposition(evaporation) is a common method of thin film deposition. The source material is evaporated in a vacuum. The vacuum allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target object (substrate), where they condense back to a solid state. metal material (in the form of wire, pellets, shot) is fed onto heated semi metal (ceramic) evaporators known as “boats” due to their shape. A pool of melted metal forms in the boat cavity and evaporates into a cloud above the source.
Spin coating is a procedure used to apply uniform thin films to flat substrates. An excess amount of a solution is placed on the substrate, which is then rotated at high speed in order to spread the fluid by centrifugal force. A machine used for spin coating is called a spin coater, or simply spinner. The Spin NXG-M-1 is a micro controller based two stage manual spin coater provides fast and easy operation. It can perform two stage rotations for precise deposition of metal oxide, polymer and metal organic thin film.
Plasma cleaning is the removal of impurities and contaminants from surfaces through the use of an energetic plasma or dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma created from gaseous species. Gases such as argon and oxygen, as well as mixtures such as air and hydrogen/nitrogen are used.
UV Ozone Cleaner is capable of removing contamination on the surface of samples, providing you with ultra clean surfaces within minutes. By using a high-power UV light source, ozone is generated – which then breaks down surface contaminants into volatile compounds. These volatile compounds evaporate from the surface, leaving no trace.
Sciencetech’s (SCP-4G) is an economic probe station that provides four gold plated spring-tip probes to provide contacts to the top surface of your test device. Gold spring probes are an excellent choice for most applications, with the probe tip gently contacting the surface of the device.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an important structural technique for characterization of crystalline materials. This technique provides the crystal structure as well as the lattice parameter of crystals. XRD measurements are generally done on solid samples. Generally powered samples are taken on a sample holder. If the sample thickness is too small, the amount of diffracted signal is very small. The most common X-Ray source is Cu Kα . In modern instruments, the detector is a wide-angle detector facilitates acquiring good signal over small period of time.
Absorbance/Diffuse reflectance Spectrophotometer
The Cary 100 is a cost-effective UV-visible spectrophotometer with a versatile set of accessories for routine laboratory work. It is controlled by the Cary WinUV software, a Windows-based software featuring an easy-to-use modular design.
A spectrofluorometer is an analytical instrument used to measure and record the fluorescence of a sample. While recording the fluorescence, the excitation, emission or both wavelength may be scanned. Fluorescence spectrometers use the continuous light source 150 W ozone free xenon arc lamp. Light from the lamp is collected by a diamond turned elliptical mirror, and then focused on the entrance slit of the excitation monochromator. The lamp housing is separated from the excitation monochromator by a quartz window. This vents heat out of the instrument, and protects against the unlikely occurrence of lamp failure. Resolution over the entire spectral range and minimize spherical aberrations and re diffraction.
Inverted fluorescence Microscope
The powerful yet easy-to-use EVOS® FL Cell Imaging System provides the flexibility to fit most epifluorescence microscopy applications. Combining precision components with unique design functionality, the EVOS® FL Cell Imaging System has revolutionized fluorescent microscopy.
Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscope (FTIR)
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission of a solid or liquid . An FTIR spectrometer simultaneously collects high-spectral-resolution data over a wide spectral range. This confers a significant advantage over a discursive spectrometer, which measures intensity over a narrow range of wavelengths at a time.
Transient Absorption spectroscopy
In an ultra fast time-resolved experiment using TAS, a sample of interest is excited by an electronically resonant coherent femtosecond pulse referred to as the “pump.” This causes changes to the spectrum of the sample, which are monitored at many wavelengths simultaneously by a white light super continuum probe as sensed by the combination of a spectrograph and camera or photo diode array. To reduce the effect of laser fluctuations, the sample’s absorption is measured first without the pump, with the optical chopper blocking the beam, and then with the pump unblocked using the subsequent pulse of the laser. The time between pump and probe is adjusted using a delay stage and the experiment is repeated until the kinetics of the sample is fully known.
The signal in TAS is reported as the change in absorption (OD) ΔA = log10(blocked/unblocked). When the signal increases upon optical excitation, this often corresponds to ground state (S0) bleach, or a depletion of the population of the ground state, indicating that there are fewer photo receptors in the ground state available to absorb the probe light. When the signal is positive, there is less light detected when the sample is excited, which is indicative of excited state absorption (S1 or T1).
Transient Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Time-resolved photo luminescence spectroscopy (TRPL) is an extension to normal spectroscopy in which a short laser pulse is used for excitation, and a fast detector is used to determine the emission of a material as a function of time after excitation. This technique can be used to measure material quality, to help identify spectral emissions with specific emissive states or to study energy transfer from one component to another in mixed systems.
Impedance takes into account all the considerations limited to an ideal resistor and other factors such as inductance, resistance, and capacitance. During electro chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), an AC voltage is applied to a sample at different frequencies, and the electrical current is measured. Impedance (Z) can then be calculated as the ratio of the frequency-dependent potential (E) to the frequency-dependent current (I). This technique allows for multiple frequency measurements. It can be used to probe different electro chemical processes happening at the same time, electron transfer rate of reaction, diffusion-limited reactions, or capacitive behavior of a system. Some of the applications of EIS includes detecting corrosion of metals, characterizing aging of food, measuring bacterial concentration in label-free biosensors, and studying ion mobility in batteries and super capacitors.
Electrospinning is a manufacturing technique involving electrostatic driven process used to create electrospun fibers. The diameter of these fibers typically ranges between tens of nanometers to a few micrometers. One of the main advantages of the electrospinning technique is its versatility of processing to create fibers with multiple arrangements and morphological structures.
Syringe pump is an important tool when it comes to fluid injection in microfluidic systems. It is mostly used for programming or tuning the flow of fluids into a microfluidic system. This is required when it comes to handling smaller volumes and offer additional features that benefit research yet are impractical for in vivo use. One major advantage of syringe pumps lies in the fact that the user can easily adapt the working range of the instrument by changing the diameter of the syringe. A small syringe diameter enables better control at low flow rates but at smaller dispensable volumes. On the contrary, a bigger diameter enables larger volumes but decreases in performance at low flow rates. NE-300 is a great choice for those who are involved in microfluidics-based research and device development. It is used for Infusion only, but does not withdraw volume, nor have computer interface or programmability. It can hold big or small syringes up to 60 mL and can pump continuously. infusion rate can be changed while pumping itself with the the selectable infusion rates: mL/hr, μL/hr, mL/min, μL/min. Minimum infusion rate is 0.73 μL/hr (1 mL syringe) and maximum is 1,500 mL/hr (60 mL syringe).
A pH meter is a scientific instrument that measures the hydrogen ion activity in water based solutions, indicating its acidity or basicity expressed as pH .The pH meter measures the difference in electrical potential between a pH electrode and a reference electrode, and so the pH meter is sometimes referred to as a “potentiometric pH meter”. The difference in electrical potential relates to the acidity or pH of the solution.
Ovens are used in a variety of laboratory applications. Heating environments include conventional, convection, and vacuum. Features include capacity, achievable temperature, programmability, and temperature ramp rates. Applications include drying, baking, aging tests, glassware drying, dry sterilization, and processing electronics.
A muffle furnace is usually a front-loading box or tube design used for high-temperature applications such as melting glass, creating enamel coatings, technical ceramics or soldering and brazing. They are also used in many research facilities to determine what proportion of a sample is non-combustible and non-volatile .
Ultrasonic cleaning is a process that uses ultrasound (usually from 20–40 kHz) to agitate a fluid. The ultrasound can be used with just water, but use of a solvent appropriate for the object to be cleaned and the type of soiling present enhances the effect.
Ultrasonic homogenizer is an ultrasonic cavitation in liquid effects versatile, multi-purpose instrument. It can be used a variety of animals and plants, viruses, cells, bacteria and tissue broken, but can be used to emulsification, separation, homogenization, extraction, anti-foaming, clear, Nano materials, distributed and speed up chemical reactions. Instrument is widely used in biology, microbiology, physics, zoology, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, sewage treatment, nano-materials and other fields. The model we have is from Helix Biosciences (92-IIDN).
Refrigerated centrifuge works on the concept of sedimentation principle by holding up the sample tubes with a capacity of 2ml, 10ml and 50ml in rotation around a fixed axis. In this, the centripetal force causes the denser substances to separate out along the radial direction in the bottom of the centrifuge tube. The rate of the centrifugation is calculated by the acceleration applied to the sample and it is typically measured in revolution per minute (RPM) or relative centrifugal force (RCF). The particle’s settling velocity during centrifugation depends on the function of their size and shape, centrifugal acceleration, the volume fraction of solids present, the density difference between the particle and the liquid, and the viscosity. This equipment is extensively used in chemistry, biology, and biochemistry for isolating and separating suspensions. It additionally provides the cooling mechanism to maintain the uniform temperature throughout the operation of the sample.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a measure of the biologically available and inert organic matter that is susceptible to oxidation by a strong oxidizing agent. The Hanna COD method is based on the well established closed dichromate-reflux colorimetric method The colorimetric measurement of COD is faster and easier to perform than the titrimetric analysis;additional reagents are not required The sample is added to the reagent vial and digested under closed reflux conditions and allowed to cool before measurement is taken Reference standards can be made using potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), 1 mg of KHP is equal to 1.175 mg COD.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D)
BOD Incubator is designed for low-temperature incubation and determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D). BOD incubator is the most versatile and reliable low-temperature incubator which is designed to maintain at 20°C, necessary for BOD determination. BOD incubators provide controlled temperature conditions for accelerated tests and exposures. The biological oxygen demand (BOD) is an empirical test in which standardized laboratory procedures are used to determine the relative oxygen requirements of microbes in waste waters, efﬂuents, and polluted waters and in simple words, It is a chemical process that determines how fast biological organisms use up oxygen in a body of water or it measures the oxygen required for the biochemical degradation of organic material (carbonaceous demand) and the oxygen used to oxidize inorganic materials, such as sulfides and ferrous iron The seeding and dilution procedures provide an estimate of the BOD at pH 6.5 to 7.5.
3D printing is an innovative technology that helps in transforming digital model to a physical object. Their purpose came with the idea of ‘rapid prototyping’, to prototype faster and cheaper. 3D printer consist of plastic filament, feeder, print head and build platform. It works by extruding molten plastic through a tiny nozzle that it moves around precisely under computer control. It prints one layer, waits for it to dry, and then prints the next layer on top. This method is called as Fused Depositional Modelling (FDM). Such 3D printers are mostly used to make custom models, complex geometric models, equipment parts, and even used for making microfluidic channels (depends on the resolution of the printer).
Satapathi Lab, East Block, Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee. Uttarakhand-247667. India